GLOBAL RESEARCH & INNOVATION
Control of Visceral Leishmaniasis in Bihar, India:
Considered a neglected disease, visceral leishmaniasis (also known as kala-azar or black fever) annually kills thousands of people from eastern Africa through India, Bangladesh, and Nepal. Of the 500,000 new cases each year globally, over 90% occur in northeastern India. Genesis is working to control the local sand fly vector in India, Phlebotomus argentipes. With experience in product development, and the use of systemic insecticides, and insect growth regulators (IGRs), the Genesis team is developing low cost products that can be used by farmers in the Bihar state where the average annual income is only $500. These products will control sand fly vectors, breaking the cycle of disease transmission, alleviating local disease burden.
Malaria Vector Control in Kenya
Malaria is the most prevalent vector-borne disease in the world with up to 500 million cases per year. In the last decade, improved access to healthcare, anti-malarial drugs, insecticide treated bed net (ITN) programs; indoor residual spraying (IRS) programs have greatly reduced the burden of malaria in Africa. However, malaria is still one of the leading causes of death in young African children. Therefore, Genesis Laboratories, in collaboration with researchers at the Kenyan Medical Research Institute, has embarked on a project to develop new products to reduce malaria transmission in Africa. These products target vectors that infrequently, come in contact with current malaria vector control methods. These products have the potential to be effective tools that the malaria eradication programs throughout Africa can use to reduce disease transmission caused by malaria vectors with behaviors that make them difficult to target with conventional technologies.
Plague Surveillance and Rodent Control Measures in Rangoon, Burma:
Rodent trapping and flea collections were performed over an extended period of time in this region. This project was conducted in collaboration with the World Health Organization, and areas with known plague were provided with rodenticide baits and insecticides. Approximately, 60 local technicians were trained during this project.
Anti-Plague Program in China:
In the Herbei province of southern China, Genesis conducted extensive surveys of rodent activity. Surveys were followed by application of baits in cities where severe rodent infestations were identified. This project involved the training of 1200 field technicians in rodent monitoring, safe use of rodenticides, and control maintenance efforts.
Vertebrate Pest Control in Niger, Nigeria, Egypt, and Sudan:
Through surveys of wildlife-related problems in agriculture, this project quantified the problems and formulated recommendations for mitigation of crop damage. Findings showed that Nile rats were damaging crops in fields and birds were damaging cereal crops such as millet and sorghum. Control of rodents was conducted through introduced methods and safe, chemically treated baits. Bird control was examined through use of repellents and frightening devices.
Agricultural Pest Management in Niger, Benin, Egypt, Sudan, Kenya, and Chad:
By discerning critical pest problems in agriculture, we worked to protect harvested crops from damage. The focus of this project was rodent and bird control damage to field crops and stored commodities. Methods of pest control were taught to local farmers, along with the use of natural control measures using products from neem trees. Field tests were conducted to discern the most effective and affordable control products.
Vertebrate Pest Research in Egypt:
A nation-wide survey of rodent and bird problems impacting agriculture was conducted in Egypt. The species involved were identified and appropriate control measures implemented to reduce crop loss. Local agricultural-extension agents were trained in the use of rodent control baits and bird repellents.
National Park Management in Niger, Benin, and Burkina Fasso:
Through international cooperation among three countries, this large-scale project’'s aim was to combat poaching, develop a national parks management plan for a reserve that overlapped these countries, compile a list of wildlife species common to the park (including small mammals, bats, birds, and large ungulates), develop a wildlife monitoring system, develop a plan to increase tourism revenue, train local populations in park management, and secure funding for equipment such as vehicles and wildlife management supplies.
Reforestation in Niger, Seegal, and Burkina Fasso:
This program, which was coordinated by individual Forest and Waters agencies, involved the development of village tree nurseries primarily, for the production of neem trees. Firewood and construction timber is in shortage in much of the Sahel of Africa. Neem trees grow rapidly and regenerate after cutting, making them an ideal source of wood for these purposes.
Developing Sustainable Output Strategies for Agriculture in Niger and Benin:
By working with Peace Corps volunteers focused on agriculture, this project initiated steps to increase local farm yield of millet and control pests. It also experimented with new varieties of crops being developed by research stations.
Development of Tsetse Fly Management Strategies in Niger and Benin:
In cooperation with the German Government, tsetse fly distributional maps were developed and species composition surveys were conducted. Through this project, it was discovered that native water buffalo and antelopes can tolerate the tsetse fly, whereas, livestock cannot. This project demonstrated that the flies serve as a barrier preventing livestock from overtaking rangelands within National Parks.
Development and Implementation of Aquaculture Programs in Niger:
In conjunction with the Department of Forests and Waters, this project involved pond culture of tilapia and river fisheries research. Villagers, along the Niger River were trained, in methods of fish farming including construction of ponds, diversion of Niger River waters for filling, fish culture techniques, harvest methods, and marketing strategies.
Training Extension Agents in Farming and Crop Storage in Niger:
Through this project, we trained agricultural technicians in various aspects of agriculture. By assessing farmer needs, we communicated various aspects of crop science, methods of farming, use of approved pesticides, and product marketing.
Large Game, Bird, and Mammal Research in Niger, Benin, and Burkina Fasso:
This project involved collection of mammal and bird specimens for verification of species ranges in a relatively unknown area of West Africa. Following completion of the project, specimens were prepared and submitted to museum collections for further scientific research.
Range Management in Niger and Burkina Fasso:
Volunteers were recruited, trained, and assigned to five areas of Niger and Burkina Fasso to assess current range conditions, and grazing patterns, and to formulate management plans to protect existing pastures and maximize production of livestock.
Apiculture in Niger:
Through this project, a system of developing village-level apiculture was established. Interested local populations were trained in the basics in establishing beehives and management of the hives, marketing of the honey, and pest control.
Potable Water Well Construction in Niger:
Hand augers were used to drill wells in many smaller villages throughout southern Niger. Materials and supplies were obtained from numerous donor agencies, and villagers assisted with the construction of the wells.
Large-Scale Rodent Control in Sahel, Niger, and Chad:
Performed for a major chemical company, rodent damage surveys were conducted and the species of concern was identified. A variety of methods for control were tested, modified, and communicated to locals in an attempt to curtail rodent damage in fields and stored grain. Methods were effective and damage was reduced significantly.